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HATE TOUXBS  AX EMPIEE                              181

would be an insult to the readers intelligence to insist upon it. If
there are any persons still inclined to question this evidence they
must be referred to the statistics. They are so damning that thev
cannot be "cooked/ even by the most fanatical Hindu.

This, then, is the background of Pakistan, a background of
blood—blood in the past, blood in the present—and, unless the
dream comes true, a great deal more blood in the future.

'But all these troubles will die down'—you may tell me. "Men
have resolved their differences in other nations, why should they
not resolve them in the Indian nation ? *
• To answer this question with any accuracy we must first define
what we mean by the word 'nation/ Renan did this so perfectly
in his famous essay on Nationality that we will not attempt to
better his words.
\Yhat constitutes a nation ?   Renan bays :
*A nation is a living soul, a spiritual principle. Two things
constitute this soul; one is in the past^ the other in the present.
One is the common possession of a rich heritage of memories ; the
other is the actual consent, the desire to live together, the will to
preserve worthily the imdivided inheritance. To have common
glories in the past, a common tcz'ZZ in the present; to have done great
things together, to will to do the like again—such are the essential
conditions for the making of a people."
How does India stand up to this test ? Consider the first of
Renan's conditions—the common possession of a rich heritage of
memories. What do the Muslims remember ? They remember
that, before the British came, they had been top dog for 800 years ;
they had lorded it over the Hindus by right of brain and brawn.
And the Hindus have not forgotten all the unpleasant details
which that overlordship entailed. In the words of Bhai Parmanand
in his pamphlet 'The Hindu National Movement5; %In history
«Jthe Hindus revere the memory of Prithi Raj, Partap, Shivaji and
Be-raji Bir who fought for the honour and freedom of their land
against the Muslims, while the Muslims look upon the invaders of